Akron Phy sics Club


Archive 2016

  

            
2016  
January  John D. Lekki - Algae bloom in Lake Erie 
February  Oleg D. Lavrentovich - Mixtures of Colloids and Liquid Crystals: Simple Physics of a Complex System 
March  The March meeting was cancelled due to illness of the speaker   
April  Yu Zhu -  Controlled Synthesis of Nanomaterials for Novel Applications
May 

Dan Galehouse - Why Quantum Mechanics is Deterministic 

September  Arthi Jayaraman - Theory and Simulations of Macromolecular Soft Materials: Linking Molecular Design to Macroscale Morphology and Function
October 

Rob Owen - Detection and Analysis of Gravitational Waves from Colliding Black Holes 

November  Timothy Matney - An Archaeological Application of Shallow Subsurface Spectroscopy in the Discovery of Unmarked Human Graves   

     

 

 

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Akron Physics Club

Newsletter

Meeting Announcement: MONDAY, January 25, 2016 - TANGIER, 6:00 PM



Dr. John D. Lekki is a Scientist at NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.  He made a presentation on this topic to us a few years ago and will update us on the latest developments in this area. Join us for this interesting evening discussing a technical phenomenon of local interest.

will be speaking on:

Algae bloom in Lake Erie


Minutes, January 25, 2016

Visitors:

Gary Catella, a first time attendee who heard about the meeting from Rick Nemer, is an optical Engineer with Cleveland Crystals for the last 29 years. They make high volume production lasers.

Lamalani Severts, a Marine Biologist, moved here from Seattle to attend the graduate fellow program at the University of Akron.

Dan Galehouse, Program Chair has speakers lined up for the rest of this academic year:

In March, Richard Elliot has arranged a talk on nanotechnology by Dr. Arthi Jayaraman. Her work involves attaching very tiny “brushes” to nanoparticles so they exhibit a variety of behaviors such as aggregation and dispersion.

In April, Dr. Yu Zhu of the Department of Polymer Science at the University of Akron will discuss his work on low-dimensional materials used in nanotechnology.

In May Dan will talk on “Why Quantum Mechanics is Completely Deterministic”.

Dan reminded us that suggestions are very welcome. Just contact Dan at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

David Sours gave the Treasurer’s Report: He reported that the November balance was $250.45. We took in $380, and paid Tangier, leaving a balance of $252.45. We made $2.00.

Jonah Kirszenberg, Webmaster, reported that we have a new website at www.akronphysicsclub.org   It is much more reliable than old Physics Department server and Jonah funded it initially. This contains all our archives for the last 26 years, Check it out! Comments are welcome.

Chair von Meerwall introduced our speaker, Dr. John Lekki: His interests include integrated optical sensing His degrees are from Michigan State University and Cleveland State University. He is a Senior Researcher at NASA Glenn, and previously was working on the Space Shuttle Program at NASA Kennedy.

Notes on Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms in western Lake Erie, by Dr. John Lekki:

     This work began in 2006. In 2012, when Dr. Lekki last spoke to us, this was a research program. In 2014, the Toledo water system was shut down due to severe outbreak of Microcystin algal bloom in western Lake Erie. A leading theory as to the cause of this was that around that time, farming practice changed to not tilling the soil before spring planting, which meant that fertilizer was not as easily absorbed into the ground, thus more fertilizer simply ran off the ground and went into Lake Erie. There are also other possible contributing factors.

     The governor asked NASA start monitoring the extent of the algal bloom. Dr. Lekki’s group was assigned to do the monitoring as well as the research. They had originally planned 3 flights in 2014; they were going to spend the winter analyzing the data. Each flight generates 40 to 60 gigabytes of data, which now goes to the Ohio Supercomputer Center, from which all partners can access the data. They had to greatly increase the number of flights to 14 [26 in 2015] and speed up data processing in order to address the requests for information. There were also concerns growing about algal blooms in reservoirs, lakes and rivers which needed investigation. Reports from their data go to an office in Columbus, who in turns alerts counties and municipalities involved.

     While algal blooms occur in many parts of Lake Erie and other lakes, the biggest problem has been in western Lake Erie, due to shallow depth and high runoff from farming. Dr. Lekki and his group worked with many other Midwest institutions to get water samples and compare them with the airborne hyperspectral sensing to identify the areas of algal bloom and some information on the types of blooms. This involved distinguishing between spectra of harmful algae, phytoplankton with chlorophyll, sediment, all of which which can look similar.

     To date, flights for hyperspectral imaging have been manned. A new project will involve a smaller lighter imager suitable for use on UAVs [drones]. All of their flights originate from Cleveland Hopkins. They started using a T-34 an acrobatic aircraft, then a Lear Jet, then an S3, which used to be a submarine hunter aircraft. Recently Twin Otters have been used, which are slow but stable. Speed is important in that they are expanding their area of operations, so speed determines how many areas they can monitor in a day.

     The spectral imaging system is calibrated before flight, but the response changes as the flight progresses. Their basic approach is to use the solar G line and other points, such as a specific parking lot and reference standard at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base to recalibrate the system as the flight is in progress. These are particularly important on days with significant cloud cover. Corrections are essential, since the same algae bloom can appear different in different weather situations.

     NOAA has purchased a hyperspectral imager; they plan to use this to pick up the monitoring activity in 2016, then NASA get again focus on research in new areas. This detailed mapping work is important since algae concentrations can vary significantly over distances of a few hundred yards, thus widely spaced sampling points are not adequate to assess the problem.

     Questions were asked about sampling, implications of the work, and data processes. Time frames for data taking were clarified to be about 30 frames per second. Moderate turbulence does not affect the readings. Long range, filtering of runoff from farmland using special grasses is one option being considered. The World Health Organization says you should not bathe in water with more than 6 micrograms algae per liter of water, but drinking water should be less than 1 microgram per liter.

We thanked the speaker with applause.

Bob Erdman, Secretary

 

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Akron Physics Club

Newsletter

Meeting Announcement: MONDAY, February 22, 2016 - TANGIER, 6:00 PM



Dr. Oleg D. Lavrentovich, Kent State University Liquid Crystal Institute

will be speaking on:

Mixtures of Colloids and Liquid Crystals: Simple Physics of a Complex System

Abstract: Liquid crystals and colloids represent two important classes of the so-called soft matter, a subject of physics most closely related to the mysteries of life. Liquid crystals are fluids formed by elongated organic molecules that tend to align parallel to each other. They have revolutionized the way we present information nowadays. Colloids have fascinated scientists for centuries and brought about many important concepts of modern physics, such as Brownian motion and its description by Einstein, Helmholz-Smoluchowski theory of electrokinetics, Onsager model of orientational order, etc. The fluid in which the colloidal particles are dispersed is typically isotropic, such as water. The physics becomes even more interesting when the isotropic fluid is replaced with an anisotropic fluid, a liquid crystal. This presentation focuses on a number of new effects, including particle levitation, anomalous Brownian motion, new types of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, and “topological turbulence” due to active microswimmers, such as bacteria. The new phenomena are rooted in anisotropy of the liquid crystal properties, such as orientational elasticity, electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity.

The Speaker: Dr. Lavrentovich Received his PhD in 1984 and his Doctor of Sciences in 1990. He has been at the Kent State Liquid Crystal Institute since 1992, is a fellow of the APS and SPIE, and has co-authored with Maurice Kleman a textbook entitled “Soft Matter Physics: An Introduction” in 2003.

Join us for an exciting evening focusing on latest developments in liquid crystals, from the local Kent Liquid Crystal Institute, known throughout the world for their pioneering work in this field.


Minutes, February 22, 2016

Visitors: Bill Doane, an initiator of the Liquid Crystal Institute who presented some talks to us many years ago returned for this meeting. Also John Erdmann, an advisee of Bill Doane, came back. He presented a talk to us on RFIDs about 10 years ago. Vivek Katiyar used to attend many meetings, but moved to California, and came back for this meeting with Mike Plishka; who also used to attend many meetings.

The Western Reserve Science Fair still needs judges for the March 19 regional Science Fair. Sign up at   https://akron.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_bemjMzuDOUuQI61   If you are not affiliated with another school system, NEOHSTEM and Hudson Schools need judges to sign up for the event. Please sign up by Thursday March 17th. Thanks.

Treasurer David Sours reported that we began with $252.45, and ended with $250.45 in the treasury.

Program Chair Dan Galehouse said that after the March meeting, on April 25, Dr. Yu Zhu of the Department of Polymer Science at the University of Akron will discuss his work on low-dimensional materials used in nanotechnology. On May 23, Dan himself will talk on “Why Quantum Mechanics is Completely Deterministic”. Dan reminded us that suggestions are very welcome. Just contact Dan at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

David Sours introduced Don Gordon of the Cascade Lock organization, who knows of Jack Geick’s work on Lock 15, the towpath trail, and what today is the Mustel Museum and Home. In the late 1980s, Jack put together books and movies on the canal and the Mustel Home. The Cascade Lock organization and people in our organization are interested in having some memorial in Jack’s honor. A Memorial Garden is planned by the Cascade Lock organization. The projected budget is $8800. It was suggested that leaders of the Physics Club propose to the club an arrangement whereby the Club could participate in the Memorial Garden. Chair von Meerwall stated that the club has no intention of forgetting Jack Geick, co-founder of the Akron Physics Club.

Jonah Kirszenberg, Webmaster, has prepared an overview of the new website at www.akronphysicsclub.org. Since this is a busy meeting, he graciously agreed to present it at our next meeting.

Chair von Meerwall introduced our speaker for tonight, Dr. Oleg Lavrentovich of the Kent State University Liquid Crystal Institute. He got his training in Kiev and in Paris, where he met Sergei Lyuksyutov. A more detailed bio for Dr. Lavrentovich appears in the Announcement of the February meeting.

Notes on Mixtures of Colloids and Liquid Crystals: Simple Physics of a Complex System

     Dr. Oleg Lavrentovich started by giving credit to the students who did the bulk of the work on his projects. Materials can be divided into “hard” materials, such as iron, stone, bronze, diamond, gold and silver which are not easily physical deformed, and “soft” materials, such as paper and polymers, liquids, colloids, etc, and most organic matter. In soft matter, interaction between molecules is much weaker than in hard matter, which can make the soft material much more responsive to its environment, and allows it to transform energy into different types.

     Liquid crystals and colloids are two of the more interesting classes of soft materials. Organic materials can have 3 states of order: 1) Isotropic materials, which have no order, 2) Orientational order, in which each molecule takes on the same orientation (such as along the optic axis in a liquid crystal), and 3) both orientational and positional order, called a molecular crystal. Nematic crystals, number 2 above, are used in modern electronics displays. While each molecule has the same orientation there is positional order. In 1934 Fredricks identified that the optical axis of such a material can be affected by the applied electric field.

     Colloids are materials in which the random Brownian motion can overcome gravity, such as in milk. These particles are typically smaller than one micron. They have surface charge, so they can be moved by the application of an electric field. This is electrophoresis. The velocity is proportional to the strength of the electric field. Electrophoresis is used in the Kindle Reader display. It has been postulated that within 100 years, it may be possible to move things by thinking about them, since the brain produces electric fields that could interact with colloidally suspended material to make it move.

     Dr. Lavrentovich is exploring the effects present when colloids are suspended in a liquid crystal, rather than an isotropic medium such as water. If a glass sphere is put into a liquid crystal medium and an electrical field is applied, the field will be distorted in the vicinity of the sphere; the distortion causes the field lines to enter the sphere perpendicular to the surface. Viewing the field lines from the top, this pattern is called a “hyperbolic hedgehog”. This distortion creates a levitation force upward on the sphere, which is proportional to R4. The gravitational force pulling down on the sphere is proportional to R3. Thus the larger the sphere, the larger the net levitation force pushing the sphere upward. If a number of parallel horizontal substrates are added, the field distortion causes the particle to repel against these substrates, adding to the levitation force. Again, the levitation force grows with the radius of the particle, a valuable property for self-assembly.

     At long time scales [an example was given of greater than 20 seconds], diffusion of the particle in this system obeys the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion equation, but there is a different diffusion coefficient for horizontal movement than vertical movement, since it is much easier for the particle to travel horizontally parallel to the plates than vertically between plates. Velocity toward the left or right at one time is independent of the previous velocity. At short time scales, superdiffusion occurs, wherein if the velocity is one direction, then the probability is very high that the next velocity will be further in the same direction.

     In an isotropic fluid, or a liquid crystal heated to the point where it becomes isotropic, velocity varies linearly with applied electric field. In a liquid crystal, a second term is added to the velocity equation, proportional to the square of the electric field. By applying an ac electric field, the average effect of the linear term is zero, and velocity is proportional to the square of electric field. By patterning a liquid crystal, “lanes” can be developed for [for example] positive charges moving right, negative charges moving left. This can be used to make pumps and accelerate mixing by creating vortices.

     Liquid crystals can be made from water and non-toxic materials, for use in investigations of living liquid crystal systems. The amount of oxygen determines activity of the bacteria. Their motion distorts the director structure, and ultimately can create a turbulent nematic.

     There were some questions and we thanked the speaker with applause.

Bob Erdman, Secretary


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Akron Physics Club

Newsletter

Meeting Announcement: MONDAY, April 25, 2016 - TANGIER, 6:00 PM



Dr. Yu Zhu, University of Akron, Department of Polymer Science

will be speaking on:

Controlled Synthesis of Nanomaterials for Novel Applications 

Abstract:
This talk will overview the research activities in Zhu’s lab, including the controlled synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNT), metal organic frameworks, metal nanowires and conducting polymers. The use of those materials in various applications such as lithium ion battery, supercapacitor, transparent electrode and electrochromic devices will be discussed.

The Speaker will be:
Professor Yu Zhu, who obtained his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry at the University of Cologne, Germany in 2007. After his post-doctoral training in Professor James Tour’s lab at Rice University, Dr. Zhu joined the department of polymer science at the University of Akron as an assistant professor in 2012. Dr. Zhu’s research areas comprise synthesis and assembly of carbon nanomaterials and polymers; the use of those novel materials in energy storage devices, nano-electronics and organic electronics. Dr. Zhu received NSF Career Award in 2015 and ACS PRF Young Investigator Award in 2014. His research has been supported by NSF, DOE, ACS PRF, Ohio TVSF and State of Ohio Center of Excellence program.

NOTE: The March meeting was cancelled due to illness of the speaker.

 
Minutes, April 25, 2016

Chair Ernst von Meerwall opened the meeting by introducing some people we have not seen for a while and newcomers: Tom and Marie Brooker have not been with us for a while; Gary Catella returned and brought with him Nicholas Linden, an Electrical Engineer and Consultant in embedded systems in clinical chemistry. David Schultz, who will soon be President Elect of ACESS, and is Secretary of the local Society of Plastics Engineers, decided to join us for this meeting.

Pad Pillai, a long-time member of the Physics Club passed away recently in India. We heard this from his Sister.

Don MacIntyre, who a few years ago gave us a speech on the eye, also passed away.

David Sours, our Treasurer, has become seriously ill. In spite of that, he brought the plastic bank and the treasury papers to the parking lot just before this meeting, telling Rick Nemer, our Name Tag Marshall, that he [David] will be unable to continue as Treasurer due to his illness. After this meeting, Rick Nemer agreed to become Treasurer, and Carol Gould agreed to become Name Tag Marshall. It is expected that they will be formally appointed and commence their duties at the May meeting. David will forward correspondence and information on the memorial honoring Jack Geick, which David was arranging, to Secretary Erdman. We thank David for his services as Name Tag Marshall for the last few years and as Treasurer this year. We hope he is able to join us again soon.

Dan Galehouse, our previous Treasurer filled in and gave the Treasurer’s Report, confirmed by email after the meeting: The starting balance was $250.45, as counted by Dan and Rick Nemer. There were 16 paying members at $20 each for $320 gain. There were 17 meals served at $18 for $306 cost.  The net gain is $14 bringing the new total to $264.45. Cash in the box agrees with this accounting. 

Chair von Meerwall then introduced the Speaker, Dr. Yu Zhu with the University of Akron: Dr. Zhu has a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Cologne, Germany, then did postdoc work at Rice University and came to University of Akron in 2012. He has received an NSF Career Award and an ACS Peer Review Award.  We welcome him.

PRESENTATION BY YU ZHU, UNIVERSITY OF AKRON:

Controlled Synthesis of Nanomaterials for Novel Applications

     Dr. Zhu’s work involves 2-dimensional materials and hybrid structures for use in high-capacity batteries and capacitors containing highly conductive films. 2-Dimensional materials are mainly made from graphene. An example of hybrid structures is a combination of vertical carbon nanotubes connecting flat horizontal graphene planes. The graphene planes are grown on a substrate such as copper or nickel, and may have a few nm thick alumina insulating layer, which stabilizes the assembly. Catalysts can be added to increase the diameter of the carbon nanotubes.

     These designs were optimized by experimenting with different thicknesses and characterized using Raman spectroscopy and TEM images to determine dimensions of the carbon nanotubes. These were grown on a silicon substrate and current-voltage curves measured, showing that the connections were ohmic and had low resistance. Tests were done to confirm bonding of the carbon nanotubes to the graphene layer.

     These structures can be used to make super capacitors that have capacitance of 100farads per gram. They exhibit similar energy storage characteristics to a Ni-Cd battery, about 60 watt-hour energy per kilogram. Dr. Zhu also showed how they make dye-sensitized solar cells with these hybrid devices.

     If polystyrene [PS} and polyethylene oxide [PEO] are formed together, and the PEO removed, porous PS remains. If nickel [NI] is deposited on this using electroless deposition, and the PS is removed, a hollow NI template remains, onto which graphene can be deposited. If the nickel is removed from this, a 3D graphene monolith remains. Examples were irregular shapes a few mm in size. These can be used to make super capacitors similar to those above.

     Graphene can be used to make transparent electrodes. By enhancing mobility and carrier density, resistances down to 30 ohms per square and transmission of up to 97% can be obtained. Electrospin patterning can be used to cost-effectively make transparent nanowires with down to 2 ohms/square sheet resistance, used as a conducting metal framework to the transparent sheets.

     Dr. Zhu showed how these materials can be used to make touch screens, lithium ion and sodium ion batteries, and thanked the 12 members of his team and his collaborators. He answered a few questions and we thanked him with a round of applause. 

Bob Erdman, Secretary



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Akron Physics Club

Newsletter

Meeting Announcement: MONDAY, May 23, 2016 - TANGIER, 6:00 PM

 

Dr. Dan Galehouse, University of Akron

will be speaking on:

Why Quantum Mechanics is Deterministic

Abstract:
The statistical behavior of quantum mechanics is commonly accepted as an intrinsic property of the laws of physics.  Here it will be argued that such statistics are actually the result of electromagnetic interactions that are poorly identified in the measurement process. A careful account shows that if all electromagnetic interactions are included, the system is deterministic.  The apparent randomness of spontaneous emission can then be used to explain other statistical behavior.  There are implications to fundamental questions of modern physics, including kaon decay and quantum gravity.

The Speaker will be: Dr. Dan Galehouse…
who is a long-time member (and Program Chair) of the Akron Physics Club and an Akron area local. While growing up, long stays in foreign countries interrupted a simple life in Ohio. Excursions were to Sweden, France and Italy. Adventures often included ocean voyages, propeller plane transportation and school work in foreign languages. Eventually, undergraduate studies at MIT offered a measure of stability and a degree in physics. This subject became a vocation and avocation, extending possibly to an obsession, especially for certain types of geometrical theories. A stint at Berkeley concluded with his PhD. degree in molecular spectroscopy. From there, he went on to an industrial position in film manufacturing at Polaroid Corporation. This was followed by work in high intensity discharge lamp design for General Electric. There were a few years spent in teaching and research at the University of Akron.  His interest in fundamental quantum mechanics and geometry began in the late 1960's and has expanded into diverse areas, including gravity and particle physics. 

Join us for this interesting discussion of a non-traditional view of quantum mechanics, presented by a long-time member of the Club.


Minutes, May 23, 2016

Chair Ernst von Meerwall opened the meeting by introducing some people we have not seen for a while and newcomers: Gary Catella returned.  Dan Levtonyukis a Software Engineer, graduated from Cleveland State University and heard about the meeting through a forwarded email.  Tom Pricehas known Rick Nemer and Dan Galehouse a long time and decided to attend this meeting. Two new people who heard about the talk from the Cleveland astronomical Society walked in to hear the talk.

Mark Taylor of Hiram College, who was a guest speaker to our club a few years ago just got an NSF grant for $124,000 in scholarships. We congratulate him.

Treasurer Rick Nemer reported that we had 21 dinners. The previous balance of $264.45 plus $42 net for this evening brings the total to $306.42. 

Dave Sours has had to resign his position as Treasurer due to medical issues, and sends his regrets. We thank him for his work both as Treasurer in his previous position as Name Tag Marshall. We wish him well.

Chair von Meerwall asked the club to approve the following officers for the coming year:

Darrell Reneker will remain as Vice Chair.

Bob Erdman will remain as Secretary.

Dan Galehouse will remain as Program Chair;

Richard Elliott will join him as Program Co-chair

Carol Gould will be the new Name Tag Marshall.

Ernst von Meerwall will remain as Chair.

Chair von Meerwall then announced the speaker, Dr. Dan Galehouse, reading from the Announcement:

While growing up, long stays in foreign countries interrupted a simple life in Ohio. Excursions were to Sweden, France and Italy. Adventures often included ocean voyages, propeller plane transportation and school work in foreign languages. Eventually, undergraduate studies at MIT offered a measure of stability and a degree in physics. This subject became a vocation and avocation, extending possibly to an obsession, especially for certain types of geometrical theories. A stint at Berkeley concluded with his PhD. degree in molecular spectroscopy. From there, he went on to an industrial position in film manufacturing at Polaroid Corporation. This was followed by work in high intensity discharge lamp design for General Electric. There were a few years spent in teaching and research at the University of Akron.  His interest in fundamental quantum mechanics and geometry began in the late 1960's and has expanded into diverse areas, including gravity and particle physics.

NOTES ON DR. GALEHOUSE’S PRESENTATION:

WHY QUANTUM MECHANICS IS COMPLETELY DETERMINISTIC

     This talk is based on one given in Vaxjo Sweden two years ago. As a long-time member of this club, I thought it would be appropriate to tell what is going on. 

     My interest in the foundations of quantum theory began in the mid 60's and has continued to the present.  This material is from the whole period, and attempts to give a complete picture.  Contact me, Dan Galehouse, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  , if you would like to consider the questions in more depth. The scientific motivation has been to combine the very mechanistic character of geometry with the essential statistics of quantum theory.

     Quantum Mechanics and Determinism: There are three parts to this presentation. First there are some comments on quantum mechanics.  Next is a discussion of the issues of a geometrical theory and the role of the electromagnetic field in the formation of statistics. Finally, I will look at some of the interesting implications.

     Classical to quantum transition: The transition to quantum mechanics began with the work of Max Planck, around 1900.  Interpretational issues were apparent even then.  It has never been clear whether the energy levels seen in the electromagnetic field where from the walls of the cavity, or intrinsic to the field itself.

     Concepts from the classical theory were reformulated to explain the quantum observations. Classical physics was still acknowledged as the fundamental science. We now know that the real physics is the quantum mechanics and classical theory is the phenomenology. The classical to quantum transition is not yet complete and we are left with pieces of classical physics hidden in the quantum mechanics, much to our disadvantage. We know now that the quantum world is fundamental and works for 100% of the calculations, and the classical description will suffice in only some of the calculations. 

     Conceptual evolution: As I studied these issues, two of the early changes have been difficult to implement: 1) The change from a particle representation that is a line in space time to a current that occupies volume.  2) The proposal that signals go backwards in time. 

     The interpretation of quantum mechanics is thereby left in an unsettled state. It has likely the most voluminous literature of any sub-field of physics.

     One example of this is the two slit pattern: When I was at MIT as an undergraduate in the 60's, a certain Prof. Frisch told of electron diffraction experiment that they had in the basement of the physics building. Apparently you could see the diffraction pattern as a collection of shimmering dots that came from the impacts of individual electrons. Here a two slit pattern is built up dot by dot as electrons are admitted into the apparatus.  At each stage there is an augmentation of the count.  You can see that each individual dot is kept as more are added. In 1989 the experiment was updated. An electrostatic bi-prism was used to get large apertures.  The imaged dots were recorded electronically after the single electrons were detected with multichannel plates. 

     Certain physical questions appear.  The individual electron hits are to be explained. Both wave and particle characteristics appear simultaneously.  Philosophers demand to know the microscopic mechanism of the individual detections. 

     DeBroglie's early description of "raisins in the plum pudding" gave rise to what is now known as the DeBroglie-Bohm theories.  It was proposed that each hit is from an individual point electron traveling on a trajectory guided by the wave function.  These are early examples of what are called “classical hidden variable theories".  The particles are guided by waves.  But what is going on here?  The individual dots on the phosphor are real but the electron must still travel as a wave.

     A wave function calculated from the Schrodinger equation predicts correctly the overall density.  Each individual electron hit appears according to the expected probability.  But then, the probability density in other parts of the screen must drop to zero once the particle has been detected elsewhere.  This is called the collapse of the wave function and is not well explained in the Schrodinger theory.  The idealization of this event eventually evolved into the abstract concept of the "measurement process" in the Copenhagen interpretation.  The electron returns to a point like status with a "position measurement" following the concept of wave-particle duality.  This is the challenge; on the screen the 'particles' appear in 'waves'.

     Experiment types: To try to understand better, different experiment types have been proposed.  Many are from theorists who understood the mathematics but had little understanding of the experimental difficulties. These involve radioactive particle and a wave front collapse, the separation of two correlated articles particles in space, and the introduction of a random classical variable in order to produce the observed statistics. In each of these, quantum theory can explain the results, but classical mechanisms cannot.

     Deterministic geometry: In the 80's Dr. Galehouse worked on a theoretical project that addressed geometrical theories of quantum mechanics.  It included gravity, electrodynamics and quantum theory in a set of closed equations.  The wave function was the integrated result of the induced effects of the external fields.  The action was always through conformal transformations.  The final wave function was the total concatenation of the induced conformal transformations.  Conformal transformations are often very non-local.   This and the extra constraints provided by the quantum field equation are important for produced the non-local effects as seen in the experiments.

     A principle of equivalence allowed for the inter-transformation of the effects of the quantum, gravitational and electromagnetic fields.  This meant that a given pattern of motion could be from any combination.  It was a completely deterministic theory in the sense that the distortions of the extended space-time, once set by the conformal transformations, were permanent and unvarying.  In addition, there was no precedent classical theory.  The structure could not be derived by quantization. 

     Quantum essentials: Because there is no classical physics, particle like objects must be formed from the waves.  Packets are formed in the usual way.  There are no point objects, only fields.  The usual quantum properties appear. Quantum mechanics was described by a set of coupled differential equations. The properties of the five dimensional description are sufficiently general that they should be used for electrons.  These constructions also appear to be important in nuclear and particle theory. 

     Simple radiation: Let us start with the simple example of radiation in an inertial frame. A point mass on a spring oscillates with frequency omega.  Radiation is emitted, with total power given by the standard formula.

     Intermediate radiation: If this same particle were hung from a string in a gravitational field we would be assured that there would be no radiation.  Yet this is not in an inertial frame, it has upward acceleration of magnitude g.  If the particle is allowed to fall, it is now in an inertial frame but would be considered to radiate.  The theoretical discussion of an accelerated article is ongoing, especially in the classical case.  Of course if the particle is put on a fixed height tower on a rotating earth, the radiation will be from the rotation and not the gravity.  Raising the tower increases the radiation rate. At the geosynchronous point, the motion becomes inertial.  If the tower is removed, to lowest order the radiation is unchanged, while the energy comes now from gravitational potential energy rather than rotational kinetic energy.  The simple concept of radiation cannot be adapted to these complexities.

     General radiation: In the most general case, a charged mass point moves inertially among gravitating bodies.  There is no characteristic inertial frame, no defined acceleration, no characteristic distance scale, no way to assure a velocity limit, no guarantee of simple E1 radiation, and no characteristic frequency or wavelength.  A proper theory must handle these cases as well, including the possibility of other non-inertial forces. 

     Two point tensors: To resolve this enigmatic situation, the approach of gravitational theory is to use the two point tensor. It is a mathematical object, a type of Green's function that depends on two points in space-time.  It has tensor indices which transform covariant at either end.  The radiative interaction can thus be described in a systematic way.  Here a current at point x is coupled to a current at point x'.  At a particular point, x, the sum of effects propagated from all points x' become the effective vacuum at x. 

     Radiation reaction: The calculation of radiation reaction has always been problematic.  Here we have an example based on two closely spaced antennas.  Each antenna alone has a power that depends on its driven current squared.  If both antennas are turned on at the same time, the power is increased to correspond to the average of the square of the sum of the currents.  The increased power must be supplied electronically by the transmitters driving the antennas.  The simple calculation shows that the added emission is equivalent to the energy required to move the current of each antenna through the radiative reaction field of the other.  The forces of radiative reaction must be accepted as ontological.  This effect of radiative reaction on nearby particles has been known in atomic spectroscopy from the early days.

     Two point tensors (reprise):  If we go back to the previous slide, it is easy to argue that the radiative reaction forces must be symmetrical between particles and must be included explicitly in the geometry. All forces come from a distortion of the space-time and cannot be added in a later step in the calculation.  They must be intrinsic to the calculation from the outset. These problems are satisfactorily addressed by the five dimensional formalism.

     Normal radiative behavior: Quantum electrodynamics offers a helpful point of view.  We begin with a perfectly reflecting empty cavity.  The evolution of the field modes inside is mechanistically deterministic.  As Particles are added, the quantum equations will complete the system.  It remains deterministic and free of quantum statistics. As the number of particles increases, k of the particles become the experiment itself and n of the particles become the absorber.  These remain around the edges and exchange photons with the experiment.  As n becomes very large, normal radiative behavior is obtained.  The character of the vacuum field does not depend on the mirror which may be removed.  The system remains deterministic even though the experiment emits photons spontaneously.  The randomness of spontaneous emission comes from the multiple interactions of the absorber.  In this way, an explicit absorber, n>>1, can account for the statistical properties of the quantum emission process.  The randomness occurs even though the complete system is mechanistically determined.  The statistics appear in a way that is compatible with a wholly mechanistic geometry.

Dr. Galehouse then described Born’s Experiment, Quantum emission, null interactions, and the paradox of Shroedinger’s famous cat. In conclusion he summarized:

1. Quantum mechanics is still in the process of evolving from classical mechanics.  Misleading classical presumptions are improperly combined into the quantum theory.

2. The understanding of particles as wave objects has progressed well, but the use of time reversed signals, as required by relativity has lagged.

3. Our understanding of quantum mechanics is improved by looking ahead to a science that is free of classical physics. Experimental tests are possible.

4. It is possible to think of quantum mechanics as a deterministic system of differential equations.  The random statistics come from the particles that make up the absorber rather than from any teleological source-- (Mother Nature or God).

Bob Erdman, Secretary

 

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Akron Physics Club

Newsletter

Meeting Announcement: MONDAY, September 26, 2016 - TANGIER, 6:00 PM



Dr. Arthi Jayaraman, Associate Professor - Department of Chemical and Biomecular Engineering & Department of Material Science and Engineering, at the University of Delaware

will be speaking on:

Theory and Simulations of Macromolecular Soft Materials: Linking Molecular Design to Macroscale Morphology and Function

Abstract:  In my research group we develop and use theory and simulation techniques to connect molecular features of macromolecular materials, specifically polymers, to their morphology and macroscopic function, thereby guiding design of materials for various applications in the energy and biomedical fields. In this talk I will present our recent work on two projects:  1) Designing polymer functionalized nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites for energy applications, and 2) designing polycations for DNA delivery. In the first part of my talk I will focus on the first project and show how we use molecular modeling, theory and simulation to understand how the monomer chemistry, monomer sequence, and polydispersity in the polymer functionalization on the nanoparticles impact the dispersion/assembly of polymer functionalized nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. In the second part of my talk, I will focus on the second project and show how we use a combination of atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of DNA and polycations composed of polypeptides, to connect the thermodynamics of polycation-DNA binding and the structure of the polycation-DNA complexes to polycation chemistry and architecture.


The Speaker:  Arthi Jayaraman received her B.E (Honors) degree in Chemical Engineering from Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India in 2000. She received her Ph.D. in Chemical and Biomolecular  Engineering from North Carolina State University in 2006, and from 2006-2008 conducted her postdoctoral research in the department of Materials Science and Engineering at University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign. In August 2008 she joined the faculty of the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at University of Colorado at Boulder, and held the position of Patten Assistant Professor. In August 2014 she joined the faculty at the University of Delaware as Associate professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering. She has received the AIChE COMSEF division young investigator award (2013), ACS PMSE division young investigator recognition (2014), University of Colorado Provost Faculty Achievement Award (2013), Department of Energy (DOE) Early Career Research Award (2010), ACS Women Chemists Committee Lectureship Award, the University of Colorado outstanding undergraduate teaching award (2011) and graduate teaching award (2014) in Chemical and Biological Engineering. Her research expertise lies in development of theory and simulation techniques and application of these techniques to study polymer functionalized nanoparticles and polymer nanocomposites, and to design polymers for gene delivery and biomedical applications.


Minutes, September 26, 2016

Chair von Meerwall opened the meeting by greeting those who are new or we have not seen for awhile: David Simmons is in the Polymer Department at the University of Akron. John Cruz is just coming into the Physics Department at the University of Akron, after 10 years in the navy. Vivek has visited us before, and returned for this talk. Jonah Kirszenberg is recovering from surgery but unable to eat solid food yet. Carol Gould’s daughter Laura is about to have twins, her first birth, in Nairobi Kenya in December. Carol will join her there.

Treasurer Rick Nemer reports that the net gain in the Treasury was $19 and the balance in plastic bank is now $325.45.

Dan Galehouse reports that for the October meeting, Rob Owen of Oberlin will speak, as announced above. There are various talks in Cleveland on LIGO, not sponsored by our Physics Club; see notes at the end.

Tim Matney will discuss An Archaeological Application of Shallow Subsurface Spectroscopy in the Discovery of Unmarked Human Graves on November 28. There are 3 or 4 other possibilities for January – May 2017, including possibly some more LIGO talks [observation of gravitational waves], David Simmons may also give talk on his work, and Carol Gould may present a talk on early computer systems she used to work with. Jay Reynolds of Cleveland State University who has spoken to us before on NASA missions may speak in May 2017. Dan and Richard Elliott will sort all this out and let us know how the schedule evolves. They welcome comments on any of these ideas, or other ideas you may have. Dan can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Bob Erdman is now President of ACESS, an umbrella organization of 15 technical societies, of which we are a member. In fact, Tim Matney heard about the Physics Club at an ACESS banquet where he spoke last year. That led to his being on our schedule for November. Joint events and science fairs and mentoring sessions for science projects are listed at the end of these notes. People familiar with physics are always in demand at the mentoring sessions, and as judges for the science fairs. The joint meetings have members of many different societies and present topics of common interest.

[Notes on Dr. Arthi Jayaraman’s talk in September will follow next week.]

FUTURE MEETINGS AND EVENTS PUT ON BY OTHER GROUPS:

Lectures on LIGO in Cleveland:

Oct 25: “Madeline Wade “Listening With Lasers for Ripples in the Fabric of Spacetime”
Professor of Physics, Kenyon College

This session will be held in the Tinkham Veale Center on the campus of Case Western Reserve University.
On 11 February 2016, the LIGO and Virgo collaborations announced the first observation of gravitational waves! LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool. Those involved in the project include more than 1000 scientists worldwide, as well as 44,000 active users at Einstein@Home  In addition to other sources, LIGO is the largest and most ambitious project ever funded by the National Science Foundation. Based on current models of astronomical events, and the predictions of the general theory of relativity, gravitational waves that originate tens of millions of light years from Earth should be detectable –and now they are! How does this experiment work and what new discoveries are on the horizon?

Nov 1: Leslie Ward, “When Black Holes Collide”
Professor of Physics, Kenyon College

This session will be held in the Tinkham Veale Center on the campus of Case Western Reserve University.

Case Western Reserve University’s (and America’s) first Nobel Prize winner, Albert Michelson, developed a highly sensitive instrument called an interferometer that demonstrated there was no ether, clearing the way for Einstein’s theory of relativity. 100 years later a massive interferometer, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), built upon early work by Michelson and many other scientists to test a component of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity: the existence of gravitational waves. Thus far, two episodes of gravitational waves have been recorded by LIGO. These track moments in time in which black holes collide with each other to form one mega black hole. The first detection was of two ~30 solar mass black holes merging about 1.3 billion light-years from Earth. The second detection arose from the merger of two black holes with 14.2 and 7.5 times the mass of the Sun. Observations continue and improvements in sensitivity are expected to peak in 2021.

Nov 8: Tom Giblin “The Future of Gravity: A New Window on the Universe, a New Window on Us”
Department of Physics, Kenyon College

This session will be held at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Case Western Reserve University’s (and America’s) first Nobel Prize winner, Albert Michelson, developed a highly sensitive instrument called an interferometer that demonstrated there was no ether, clearing the way for Einstein’s theory of relativity. 100 years later a massive interferometer, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), built upon early work by Michelson and many other scientists to test a component of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity: the existence of gravitational waves. Thus far, two episodes of gravitational waves have been recorded by LIGO. These track moments in time in which black holes collide with each other to form one mega black hole. The first detection was of two ~30 solar mass black holes merging about 1.3 billion light-years from Earth. The second detection arose from the merger of two black holes with 14.2 and 7.5 times the mass of the Sun. Observations continue and improvements in sensitivity are expected to peak in 2021.

From Shiela King concerning NEOHSTEM mentoring of high school students preparing projects for science fairs early next year, and other events requiring technical professionals:

On October 22, there will be a Speed Mentoring session where students present preliminary ideas to professionals and discuss it for 15-20 minutes. This year we are inviting more new schools to participate and we may have many new-comers to the Science Fair so more mentors are needed. Please volunteer if you are available and interested. Link is below.

Also, we are starting an outreach called http://sowstem.org/ to grow science parent groups at schools. Over the next month, we will be visiting local libraries to help form parent groups to encourage more science extra-curricular activities without overwhelming teachers. Please also consider volunteering for this effort. Email Sheila with any questions.

Go to the following link to see if you are interested or available for some of our programs: http://neohsciencementors.org/

For more information on our programs: http://codations.org/ and

http://stemprojectfair.org/, http://www.neohstem.org/

Please email the webmaster, Roxie, if you have any questions with the online forms: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Email me, Sheila King, if you have any other questions: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The Astronomy Club of Akron...

is proud to announce our next meeting on Friday October 28, 2016 at 8:00 PM occurring at our new location:

New Franklin City Hall
5611 Manchester Road
Akron, OH 44319

located at the north-east corner of Manchester Rd & Center Rd just 1 mile south of the Portage Lakes State Park entrance used to access the ACA Observatory.

Our speaker will be:

Dr. R. Earle Luck
Warner Professor of Astronomy
Department of Astronomy
Case Western Reserve University

presenting “The Via Lactea

Professor Luck will give an overview of the components and structure of the Via Lactea – the Milky Way. Old problems will merge into recent research giving a glimpse into the dynamic evolution of our understanding of the properties and evolution of our host galaxy.

Additional details, including map and directions, can be found here: link ( Akron Astronomy Club Meeting Announcement - October 28th )

Please note: All Club meetings and events at our Observatory in the Portage Lakes State Park are open to the public and always free of charge.

Sincerely,
Dave Jessie
VP & Webmaster, Astronomy Club of Akron
www.acaoh.org


ACESS JOINT MEETING, OPEN TO EVERYONE IN MEMBER SOCIETIES [as we are]:

October 19, 2016, Akron Section American Chemical Society meeting

Speaker W. T. (Tom) Southards, Outreach Program Manager, Kent State University, College of Applied Engineering, Sustainability and Technology

Abstract: American Chemical Society Presentation: Focusing Your Career Direction

We will discuss the, Business Model You, which provides a one-page framework for reinventing your career. This approach evolved out of earlier work by a number of contributors to development of the Business Model Canvas. Our goal is to give you a new option for thinking about your career path forward. We will also touch on networking approaches, some interesting tools for day-to-day success, some job search tools, and considerations for free lancing or science-for-hire.

The meeting will take place Wednesday, October 19th, 2016 at Papa Joe's Restaurant, 1561 Akron Peninsula Road, Akron, OH 44313. social time 5:30, dinner 6:30, Talk 7:15. Price is $25 professional and $10 student; Reservations can be made to Walter Salamant, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. by Noon, Friday, October 14.

Biography: Outreach Program Manager, Kent State University, College of Applied Engineering, Sustainability and Technology, 1998 – Present. M.E., University of Florida; B.S.E., University of North Carolina at Charlotte.Mr. Southards manages the College of Applied Engineering, Sustainability and Technology outreach program and is the Director of the Ohio Small Business Development Center at Kent State University (SBDC-KSU). The SBDC at KSU specializes in serving manufacturing, technology-based and construction businesses.

Notes on the September 26 presentation by Dr. Arthi Jayaraman:

Theory and Simulations of Macromolecular Soft Materials: 

Linking Molecular Design to Macroscale Morphology and Function

     Dr. Jayaraman is involved in “making the molecules dance the way we would like them to”. This involves polymer modeling and engineering of long-chain molecules, and comparing them to predictions in order to explore how the molecules interact on a larger scale. She will focus on nanoparticles and nanocomposites in this talk. They are also involved in many other related areas.

     Polymer composites with nanoscale fillers are important in the tire industry, photovoltaics, and other areas. Different properties are obtained depending on the polymer and the way in which the nanoparticles are organized in the material. By choosing the molecular weight of the polymer and grafted nanoparticles, and the coating on filler particles, the characteristics of the composite material can be affected. Dr. Jayaraman’s group is focused on how coatings on the nanoparticles affect the morphology of the particles within the polymer.  If the grafted nanoparticles spread throughout the polymer this is dispersion or wetting. In dewetting, or aggregation of the particles, they clump together. Sometimes the desired morphology is a completely organized lattice structure, particularly where electrical conductivity is important. Tuning the morphology determines where the particle goes in the material. Their work is focused on making predictions on the functionalization of the nanoparticles [the coating on them] and comparing these predictions to resulting characteristics.

      If the molecular weight of the coating is chemically the same as the matrix, the filler is chemically identical. If the molecular weight of the matrix is smaller than the coating on the filler, wetting occurs and the particle disperses evenly. If the molecular weight of the matrix is much larger, it appears to be too dense then dewetting occurs and the particles tend to clump. In polydisperse materials, there is a wide distribution of molecular weights. In monodisperse materials, there is a narrow range of molecular weights. This theory was proven by experiments with monodispersse and polydisperse materials. The difference is due to the entropy difference between monodisperse and polydisperse materials.

     Athermal wetting is the temperature at which the amount of wetting is equal to the amount of wetting in the case where the chemistry is identical. It turns out that for a wide variety of homogeneous materials with different chemistries there exists a temperature at which athermal wetting occurs.

     Due to an accident in an experiment, a matrix occurred which is not homogeneous. It separated into two layers, each with a different chemistry. Their work showed that the same principles apply to such a composite material. They also showed that these principles apply to polymer crystals such as in organic semiconductors. Short chains were used for this work, since long chains had too many unattached ends.

     Dr. Jayaraman thanked her research team and answered a few questions. We thanked her with a round of applause.

[The business meeting notes and various announcements were sent with the initial announcement. A few more announcements came in below.]

There is a strong need for professionals and educators in STEM areas at the mentoring session at Hudson High School on Saturday October 22.  Go to the following link to register: http://neohsciencementors.org/  Or email Sheila King at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

In addition to the NEOHSTEM Science fair on Jan. 21 mentioned earlier as needing judges, the Akron Public Schools will be holding its Science Fair on January 28, 2017, also needing qualified judges.

Bob Erdman, Secretary 

 

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Akron Physics Club

Newsletter

Meeting Announcement: MONDAY, October 24, 2016 - TANGIER, 6:00 PM



Dr. Rob Owen, Assistant Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Oberlin College.

will be speaking on:

The Detection and Analysis of Gravitational Waves from Colliding Black Holes

Abstract:
One of the most valuable carriers of astronomical information was hidden from human perception from the dawn of time until September 14, 2015. On that day, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) made the first ever direct detection of gravitational waves, ripples in the structure of spacetime itself, caused by the collision of two black holes. Though such black hole collisions are among the most violent events in the universe, emitting energy at an astonishing rate, it is equally astonishing how difficult these waves are to detect. In this talk, I will give a general overview of gravitational waves and the basic structure of the LIGO instrument. I will then describe the work that I and my collaborators do on the theory side, predicting the waveforms that should be expected, and inferring astrophysical information from detected events.

The Speaker:
Dr. Owen did his post-doctoral work at Cornell, after getting his Ph.D. at California Institute of Technology in 2007. He still collaborates with both of these institutions. He got his Bachelor of Science at the University of Utah in 2001. He is a member of the Simulating Extreme Spacetimes collaboration. Their website is www.black-holes.org

Minutes, October 24, 2016

NOTES FROM THE OCTOBER 24 BUSINESS MEETING:

Dr. JuttaLeuttmer-Strathmann introduced 5 Students attending tonight.

Jonah Kirszenberg announced that Leon Marker, a long-time member of the Club passed away recently. He had a distinguished career as a research Chemist. The Obituary mentioned that he was an active member of our club.

Treasurer Rick Nemer reports that the beginning balance in the Treasury was $325.45. We took in $380 from 19 paid dinners, and the bill was $442. We got a generous gift of $100, leaving a balance of $363.45.

Dan Galehouse up dated us on future program plans:

·         As announced above, in November Tim Matney will provide the talk.

·         In January, David Simmons will talk about glass transition temperatures

·         In February, Harsch Mateur will discuss one of many topics in which he is involved.

·         In March, Carol Gould will share her experiences with early computers.

·         In April, Dan hopes to arrange someone from the LIGO project as a presenter.

·         In May, Jay Reynolds will update us on data from asteroid explorations.

We gave Dan a hand for arranging the complete year. He said he open to suggestions for next year. Contact him a This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Bob Erdman, our liaison to ACESS, an umbrella organization of 15 technical societies, mentioned that volunteer judges are need for the January 21, 2017 NEOHSTEM fair at Kent State University. Go to http://stemprojectfair.org/,  and click on Mentor Volunteer registration. Contact Sheila King at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if other questions or you can volunteer as a judge for other technical events.

In addition to the NEOHSTEM Science fair on Jan. 21, the Akron Public Schools will be holding its Science Fair on January 28, qualified judges are also needed for this event. Contact Katrina Halasa at  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Bob Erdman, Secretary
 

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Akron Physics Club

Newsletter

Meeting Announcement: MONDAY, November 28, 2016 - TANGIER, 6:00 PM



Dr. Timothy Matney, Professor of Archaeology, University of Akron

will be speaking on:

An Archaeological Application of Shallow Subsurface Spectroscopy in the Discovery of Unmarked Human Graves

The main Speaker will be: Dr. Timothy Matney, a Professor of Archeology at The University of Akron. He has over 25 years of field experience excavating and conducting geophysical surveys in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Israel, Azerbaijan, India, England, and the US. His most recent excavation project was an 18-year-long excavation of an Assyrian city in Turkey dated between 900-600 BC

 

Abstract: 
One persistent problem facing law enforcement is the recovery of hidden or clandestine human burials in homicide cases. Testimonial evidence can often place a grave within a broad area, but the location of a body is forensic necessary evidence for court proceedings. Traditional forms of prospection for such burials include visual surface survey and the use of cadaver dogs. Our project aims to add a new tool to the criminal justice toolkit by developing prospection equipment capable of detecting shallow subsurface human burials by use of spectroscopic analysis of in situ soils. In particular, we hope that the detection of human decay products, such as fatty acids, in the soils surrounding human burials might provide a useful tool for the law enforcement community.

Before this main presentation, William Jack will update us on his trajectory and latest endeavors since he presented to us a talk on his home-made fusion furnace a few years ago when he was in high school. He since went to M.I.T. and founded a west-coast start-up company. 

Minutes, November 28, 2016